Water Turbines for Electricity: What You Should Know
Hydropower is one of the sources of electricity in many countries.
The source is cheap- water is renewable and readily available and this is the reason why many policy makers are geared towards adopting this resource as a complementary source of electricity.
The only downside for this power production can be linked to the construction of the plants and the major equipments and parts like water turbine. The cost can reach hundreds of millions, depending on the capacity of the plant.
The water turbines for electricity are known in two categories which includes the impulse turbines and the reaction turbines.
The impulse-type of turbines have the capacity to alter the direction of the flow of the high velocity water. The action eventually spins the turbine and the flowing water is now left with less energy.
The reaction turbines on the other hand produce torque and this is made possible by acting on the pressure or the mass of the liquid.
There may be some design differences between the many types of turbines, but still the common thread linking these turbines is their ability to draw out the power from the moving water. Now what can be changed and tweaked by anyone interested in hydropower production is the hydropower turbine efficiency.
There are a number of factors that affect the design of the turbine and the water turbine design is just the start.
Listed below are some things that have an impact on the production and the efficiencies of the turbine and by extension, the water turbine electric generator. Some of these things are applicable for the smaller and the micro turbines and generators.
• For starters, in order for the water turbine to work then you have to make sure that there will be at least 3 feet worth of water fall, and the volume of water should not be less than 20 gallons per minute.
Keep in mind that if there is more fall, then this means that less water is needed by the generator and the turbine. Here’s one good rule of thumb to remember if you are new in hydropower generation- if there is more fall and flow then you can be sure that there will be lots of power that can be generated.
• In your water turbine power calculation, it is best to consider the size of the pipeline. Now the size or the diameter must be large enough in order to reduce the incidence of friction loss.
• Also, the size of the nozzle and the turbine type all has a say on the head and the flow.
Also, the hydro water turbine efficiency is affected by the right application.
Each type of the turbine has its own application and this should be followed in order to get the best output. For example, your ‘Pelton turbine’ is the best bet for the high head which will not require a large flow of water. The Francis-type turbine on the other hand is the best selection for source with lower head and also a higher water flow.